BB cream. Known as beauty balm or blemish balm, this originated in Asia, and has quickly become popular in the states. Tinted moisturizer. Pretty much interchangeable with BB cream. Both of these are pretty sheer coverage, moisturizing, usually with SPF. Great option if you're in a
hurry, usually applied with fingers.
Mineral powder. Popular with teens, great sheer coverage, as well as shine eliminating. Great for working out to minimize pore clogging. Best applied with with a kabuki brush.
Liquid foundation. The most traditional and probably the most common, varies from sheer to full coverage. Can be used with a foundation, stippling/buffing, kabuki, or beauty sponge.
Cream. Very portable, one of my favorite formulas. Usually full coverage. Easy to apply with any of the brush methods.
Beauty blender, or beauty sponge.
Usually dampened before use, this gives a flawless and airbrushed look. Be sure and clean often with brush cleaner.
Kabuki. Usually used with mineral powder, but can also be used with the other formulas. Good for full coverage, quick, controlled application
Flat foundation brush.
The traditional method, it's not really my favorite. Personally I find it leaves streaks, but a lot of people like it for either cream or liquid foundations.
Stippling/buffing brush. One of the newer brush styles, this is also wonderful for an airbrushed, sheer yet build-able application.